Just like doctors for humans, pet doctors, or veterinarians, come in all specialties. Some focus on general pet care. Some are specialists in dogs, or cats, or horses, or livestock. Some practice emergency pet medicine.
There are also specialties as varied as pet dermatology, reproductive health, etc. Just like doctors, vets pursue these specialties after their initial vet training. Regardless of specialty, all vets have the basic training required to perform routine pet care. You can also donate money for saving pets life via https://face4pets.org/
Veterinarians are also responsible for food safety and other things related to microbes, such as biological warfare. This comes as a surprise to many people, but makes perfect sense when one considers that many diseases are spread through animals and that much of our food comes from animals.
Vet researchers study diseases transferred between humans and animals. Much of this research leads to drugs to treat humans. Vets inspect slaughterhouses, work for restaurant inspection agencies and ensure that dead animals are not diseased and are disposed of correctly.
Vets help establish government regulations involving food production and storage. Anytime a food borne illness outbreak occurs, vets are the people looking for the cause and the origin of the illness. This often takes them to farms and slaughterhouses in foreign countries to determine if their standards meet US requirements.
Since many drugs to be used on humans are tested first on animals, it's not surprising to hear that vets are also active in all medical research. Vets are on hand to diagnose problems with the animals and to treat them when such problems arise.
In any sports activity that has animals involved you will find plenty of vets. Whether it's horse racing, dog racing, circuses or whatever, vets are the people charged with keeping the animals healthy and caring for their medical needs. Try to find a thoroughbred racehorse without a vet on a 24 hour call.