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ELISA (which stands for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a technique to detect the presence of antigens in biological samples. An ELISA, like other types of immunoassays, relies on antibodies to detect a target antigen using highly specific antibody-antigen interactions.
Basic ELISA principles
In the ELISA assay, the antigen is immobilized on a solid surface. This is done either directly or using only one capture antibody immobilized on the surface. The antigen is then complexed with a detection antibody that is conjugated to a molecule suitable for detection, such as an enzyme or a fluorophore.
The capture antibody on the multi-well plate immobilizes the desired antigen. This antigen is recognized and bound by biotin-conjugated detection antibodies and streptavidin-HRP. There are many companies available that provide the best bdnf elisa kit online.
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ELISA analysis is usually performed on multi-well plates (96 or 384 wells) that provide a solid surface for antigen immobilization. Immobilizing the analyte facilitates the separation of the antigen from other components in the sample. This feature makes ELISA one of the easiest tests to perform multiple tests at once.
Advantages of ELISA
• High sensitivity and specificity: It is common that ELISA can detect antigens very specifically at the picogram level due to the use of antibodies.
• High bandwidth: Commercial ELISA kits are usually available in a 96-well format. But the test can easily be adjusted to fit the 384-well plate.
• Easy to Implement: The protocol is easy to follow and takes little time to work.
• Quantitative: Can determine the concentration of antigen in the sample.
• Ability to test different types of samples: serum, plasma, cell, and tissue extracts, urine and saliva, etc.